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Figures of speech. Una risorsa per il CLIL di Latino in lingua inglese

red - Di seguito viene proposta una risorsa didattica sulle figure retoriche, utile per le classi in cui sono attivi dei percorsi CLIL di letteratura latina in lingua inglese.

Figures of speech

figure of speech or rhetorical figure is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase. It can be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as any figure of speech introduces an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation.

Alliteration – The repetition of consonantal sounds, especially at the beginning of a word or words 

 Anaphora – The repetition of a word, especially at the beginning of a clause

 Anastrophe – reversal of normal word order (such as placing an object of the preposition before the preposition)

 Aposiopesis – The abrupt halt in speech or a thought so that-

 Apostrophe – addressing someone or something not present, usually for emotional effect

 Assonance – The repetition of vowel sounds

 Asyndeton – The lack of conjunctions to emphasize the collective over the individual

 Chiasmus – the pattern of words or phases in a “ABBA” pattern usually to show a contrast

 Ecphrasis – elaborate literary description of a scene, or specifically a work of art

 Ellipsis – the omission of a word or words

 Enjambment – the delay of a critical word to the next line of poetry

 Hendiadys – use of two nouns connected by a conjunction to express a single complex idea instead of having one noun modified by an adjective

 Homoeteleuton – repetition of the same endings

 Hyperbaton – far separation of two words that “go together” like noun adjective pairs

 Hyperbole – exaggeration

 Hysteron Proteron – description of events in an order opposite their logical sequence

 Litotes – form of deliberate understatement; confirming a statement by denial of its opposite

 Metonymy – the use of one thing to represent another

 Onomatopoeia – use of words whose sound suggests the meaning

 Pleonasm – unnecessary or excessive use of words

 Polysyndeton – the excess use of conjunctions to emphasize the individual aspects of list of words or phrases

 Polyptoton – the repetitionof either the same word in different forms of declension or conjugation or of different words with a close etymological relation

 Praeteritio – “a passing over;” a claim to omit something, yet doing so in the claim itself

 Prolepsis – attribution of a characteristic before it logically would apply

 Prosopoipoia – taking on a persona in a speech for dramatic effect

 Synchesis – the pattern of words or phrases in a “ABAB” pattern to emphasize an interconnectedness between the items at issue

 Synecdoche – a type of metonymy in which the thing representing the other is part of that thing

 Tmesis – “cutting” of a word to separet it, usually a compound and its root, and usually in poetry

 Tricon Crescens – the series of three words or phrases in a crescendo of heightened emotional effect

 Word picture – arrangement or use of words or a phrase to mimic the meaning given in the phrase

 Zeugma – use of a single word with a pair of others yet would apply to only one or to each in different ways

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