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D. C. Generator. Appunti per il CLIL di Elettronica in lingua inglese

red - Di seguito vengono proposti alcuni appunti del prof. Matteo Burnacci, utilizzati nell'ambito delle attività CLIL realizzate presso l'I.T.I.S. “Nullo Baldini” di Ravenna. Gli appunti riguardano la disciplina Elettronica ed Elettrotecnica, che fa parte del curricolo dell'indirizzo Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica, articolazione Elettrotecnica.


Yoke of DC Generator

Yoke of DC generator serves two purposes:

- it holds the magnetic pole cores of the generator and acts as cover of the generator;

- it carries the magnetic field flux.

In small generators, yokes are made of cast iron. Cast iron is cheaper in cost but heavier than steel. Actually for large construction of DC generator, where weight of the machine is relevant, lighter cast steel or rolled steel is preferable for constructing yoke of DC generator. Normally larger yokes are formed by rounding a rectangular steel slab and the edges are welded together at the bottom. Then feet, terminal box and hangers are welded to the outer periphery of the yoke frame.

Pole Cores and Pole Shoes of DC Generator

Let's first discuss about pole core of DC generator. There are mainly two types of construction available.

1) Solid pole core, made of a solid single piece of cast iron or cast steel.

2) Laminated pole core, made of a lot of thin, limitations of annealed steel which are riveted together.

The thickness of the lamination is in the range of 0.04" to 0.01". The pole core is fixed to the inner periphery of the yoke by means of bolts through the yoke and into the pole body.

The pole shoes are so shaped, that, they spread out the magnetic flux in the air gap and reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path. Due to their larger cross - section they hold the pole coil at its position.

Pole Coils

The field coils or pole coils are wound around the pole core. These are a simple coil of insulated copper wire or strip, which is placed on the pole between yoke and pole shoes as shown.

Armature Core of DC Generator

The purpose of armature core is to hold the armature winding and provide low reluctance path for the flux through the armature from N pole to S pole. Although a DC generator provides direct current induced current in the armature is alternating in nature. That is why, cylindrical or drum shaped armature core is build up of circular laminated sheet. In every circular lamination, slots are either die - cut or punched on the outer periphery and the key way is located on the inner periphery as shown. Air ducts are also punched of cut on each lamination for circulation of air through the core to provide better cooling. Up to diameter of 40", the circular stampings are cut out in one piece of lamination sheet. Above 40" as diameter instead, number of suitable sections of a circle is cut. A complete circle of lamination is formed by four or six or even eight segments.

Armature Winding of DC Generator

Armature winding are generally formed wound. These are first wound in the form of flat rectangular coils and are then pulled into their proper shape in a coil puller. The various conductors of the coils are insulated one from the other. The conductors are placed in the armature slots, which are lined with tough insulating material. This slot insulation is folded over above the armature conductors placed in it and secured in place by special hard wooden or fiber wedges.

Commutator of DC Generator

The commutator plays a vital role in dc generator. It collects current from armature and sends it to the load as direct current. It actually takes alternating current from armature and converts it into direct current and then sends it to the external load. It is cylindrical structured and is build up of wedge - shaped segments of high conductivity, hard drawn or drop forged copper. Each segment is insulated from the shaft by means of insulated commutator segment shown below. Each commutator segment is connected with corresponding armature conductor through segment riser or lug.

Brushes of DC Generator

The brushes are made of carbon. These are rectangular block shaped. The only function of these carbon brushes of DC generator is to collect current from commutator segments. The brushes are housed in the rectangular box shaped brush holder.

Bibliography and useful sites

- http://www.electricaleasy.com/2012/12/basic-construction-and-working-of-...

- http://news.softpedia.com/news/How-is-Electric-Energy-Produced-74983.shtml

- http://www.electrical4u.com/principle-of-dc-generator/

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW45N2WpD64

- http://www.ustudy.in/node/3944

- http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=first-quiz_80

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